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Trophic Cascades – Wolves

Trophic cascades are more of a snowball than a butterfly effect, in the sense that there are more plausible effects taking place. Still, the level of prediction is fairly limited, especially when it comes down to details. You will have to argue in terms of trends and patterns, what ecosystems typically tend to do in similar conditions. But there is no point in trying to predict which bird will be dominant in which clearing, and where the river is going to take a bend in a few years from now.